"Among droplet generation technologies, the flow focusing technique is a major process due to its control, stability, and reproducibility. In this process, one fluid (the continuous phase) interacts with another one (the dispersed phase) to create small droplets. Experimental assays in the literature on gas-liquid flow focusing have shown that different jet regimes can be obtained depending on the operating conditions. However, the underlying physical phenomena remain unclear, especially mechanical interactions between the fluids and the oscillation phenomenon of the liquid. In this paper, based on published studies, a numerical diphasic model has been developed to take into consideration the mechanical interaction between phases, using the Cahn-Hilliard method to monitor the interface. Depending on the liquid/gas inputs and the geometrical parameters, various regimes can be obtained, from a steady state regime to an unsteady one with liquid oscillation. In the dispersed phase, the model enables us to compute the evolution of fluid flow, both in space (size of the recirculation zone) and in time (period of oscillation). The transition between unsteady and stationary regimes is assessed in relation to liquid and gas dimensionless numbers, showing the existence of critical thresholds. This model successfully highlights, qualitatively and quantitatively, the influence of the geometry of the nozzle, in particular, its inner diameter."
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