We initially showed that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) can be presented to cells in a matrix-bound manner, ie presented via a biomaterial surface (Crouzier et al, Small 2009) . This biomaterial is a thin film made by self-assembly, namely a layer-by-layer film of polysaccharides and polypeptides that has can trap the BMPs.
We have continued our development and proved, that BMP-coated ceramic granules are ostoinductive in an ectopic site, when they are implanted in muscle (Guillot et al, Biomaterials 2011) . We further proved that BMP-2-loaded film-coated titanium implants can be dried and sterlized, while remaining osteoinductive (Guillot et al, Biomaterials 2013) . We then proved that a critical size femoral bone defect in rats can be regenerated by combining an initially empty 3D scaffold to the osteoinductive film coating. Notably, bone that was newly formed bone after 8 weeks exhibited the typical morphology of native bones, made of cortical and trabecular bones. Beside, the regenerated bone was vascularized (Bouyer et al, Biomaterials 2016).
In collaboration with Prof. Georges Bettega (CHR Annecy and IAB Grenoble), we are continuing our pre-clinical developments in large animals in the frame of the ERC POC REGENERBONE (PI CPicart) and Fondation Gueules Cassées.