Our initial studies (Crouzier et al, Small 2009) have shown that potent osteoinductive growth factors of the BMP family (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins) can be loaded in tunable amounts in layer-by-layer films made of biopolymers. We have now taken two complementary routes: the first one consists in investigating the signaling mechanisms of BMP proteins presented in a "matrix-bound" manner by the biomaterial; the second route aims at coating BMP-loaded films onto implants that are commonly used in orthopedic, dental and maxillo-facial surgery to enhance their osteoinductive properties. We showed that BMP-coated implants made of ceramics (Guillot et al, Biomaterials 2011) and of titanium (Guillot et al, Biomaterials 2013) are osteoinductive in a rat ectopic model. Recently, we proved that a critical size femoral bone defect in rats can be regenerated by combining an initially empty 3D scaffold to our osteoinductive coatings. Notably, the newly formed bone after 8 weeks exhibited typical properties of cortical as well as trabecular bone and was vascularized (Bouyer et al, Biomaterials 2016).