Les protéines ERM, une interaction entre la membrane cellulaire et le cytosquelette: une approche biomimétique/ERM proteins a link between the cellular membrane and the cytoskeleton: a biomimetic approach
Ezrine-Radixine-Moésine, phosphoinositides, PIP2, interactions protéine-lipide, membrane lipidique biomimétique, protéine virale Gag, cytosquelette/Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin, phosphoinositides, PIP2, protein/lipid interactions, biomimetic lipid membrane, Gag viral protein, cytoskeleton
Directeurs de thèse : Prof. C.PICART - Grenoble INP, LMGP, équipe IMBM et Dr L.BLANCHOIN -Institut de Biosciences et Biotechnologies de Grenoble (BIG), CEA Grenoble
ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) proteins play a central role in cellulo in a large number of physiological and pathological processes, including cell infection, migration and cell division. Among the ERMs, moesin is particularly involved in the formation of the immunological synapse, viral and bacterial infection, and cancer metastasis. From a structural point of view, ERMs can be in inactive (closed) conformation or active (open), which enable them to interact on one side with the cytoskeleton (actin and tubulin) via their C-terminal domain and on the other side with the plasma membrane via their FERM domain. Binding to the plasma membrane is mediated via a specific lipid of the phosphoinositide family, the phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate (PIP2). In addition, ERM can be phosphorylated, which contribute to their structural opening. To date, the role of the phosphorylation in ERM/membrane and ERM/cytoskeleton interactions, although widely studied in cellulo, remains poorly understood at the molecular level.
The aim of this PhD thesis is precisely to study, at the molecular level and using biomimetic systems, interactions between recombinant proteins and biomimetic membranes containing PIP2. To this end, we have engineered lipid membranes in the form of large and small unilamellar vesicles and supported lipid bilayers. These biomimetic membranes are used to characterize interactions between proteins and membranes by complementary biophysical techniques, notably quantitative cosedimentation, fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. In a first part, we studied the role of double phosphorylation on moesin, achieved via a site-specific mutation on threonine residues, on moesin/biomimetic membrane interactions, in comparison to the wild type protein. The recombinant proteins and mutants were produced in our laboratory.
Our results show that there is a specific and cooperative interaction for the double phosphomimetic mutant while interactions is 1:1 in the case of the wild type protein. In a second part, we used supported lipid bilayers containing PIP2 to study the molecular adsorption mechanism of the viral protein Gag and of its mutants. The methodologies that were developed in this work open perspectives in molecular biophysics since they are easily adaptable to other proteins on model lipid membranes containing phosphoinositides
Rédigé par Michele San Martin
mise à jour le 16 mars 2017